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해외프로젝트 사례를 통한 손해배상(LDs)연구 및 계약자 대응방안 개발

Development of Review Processes and Tools for Liquidated Damages for EPC/Turnkey Projects: Contractor’s Perspective

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초록 moremore
As a recent global trend, the majority of plant projects are delivered through EPC or EPC-turnkey contracts, where a contractor’s liability is more complicated because of the mega size scale and financing method. Under this liabilities mechanism knowledge, it is challenging for contractors to carry ...
As a recent global trend, the majority of plant projects are delivered through EPC or EPC-turnkey contracts, where a contractor’s liability is more complicated because of the mega size scale and financing method. Under this liabilities mechanism knowledge, it is challenging for contractors to carry out the projects without the clear liability processes and tools. Previous researches have been lacking a practical usability for project members for liabilities of contracts. Those were focused on solving the claims or schedule calculation issues only. The objective of the present study was to develop a validation process for LDs (liquidated damages) in contractor’s liabilities with various case studies and expert judgments. As summarized in this paper, the processes and tools were developed with project life cycle process. The project preparation phase includes 3 step check lists to determine the Go or No-go for projects. In progress phase, contractors should focus on the response strategies for claims with liabilities. The processes and tools were applied to case studies, which on several EPC projects in various industry disciplines such as steel making plant, power plant, offshore plant and process plant to verify the practicality. The study concludes that those developed processes and tools will help to manage risk of LDs (liquidated damages) for the contractors in the overseas projects. The limitations of this study include assessing the expert judgment with limited contractual documents. For this reason, the limitation warrants future studies using multiple project teams and related documents to examine a more usability for the developed process and tools. Also, further studies should rely on not only organization’s features for project but also characteristics which are unusable to control to derive more significant results.
목차 moremore
1. 서론 1
1.1 LDs 연구의 필요성 및 배경 1
1.2 연구의 목표 4
...
1. 서론 1
1.1 LDs 연구의 필요성 및 배경 1
1.2 연구의 목표 4
1.3 연구방법 5
2. 이론적 배경 7
2.1 LDs 이론적 배경 7
2.1.1 LDs의 역사적 의미 7
2.1.2 손해배상(LDs) 와 벌과금(PENALTY) 9
2.2 BASIC PRINCIPLES 11
2.2.1 DLD (MILESTONE, COMPLETION DATE) 12
2.2.2 PLD 14
2.2.3 KEY PERSONNEL 16
2.2.4 TOPSIDE WEIGHT 19
2.2.5 COMBINED 20
2.2.6 LDs AMOUNT 22
2.3 CONTRACTOR’S LIABILITIES VS LDs 23
2.3.1 EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES AND FAIL SAFE 25
2.3.2 INDIRECT AND CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES / LOP 27
3. TECHNICALIES OF LDS 30
3.1 계약서 주요조항 30
3.1.1 EOT, TIME AT LARGE, TIME BARRING 30
3.1.2 PERIOD OF ASSESSMENT 34
3.1.3 LD VS UNLIQUIDATED DAMAGES 37
3.1.4 LDs and CONTINGENCY 38
3.1.5 LOCAL GOVERNANCE LAW 41
3.1.6 OFF TAKE AGREEMENT 43
3.2 CONTRACTOR 대처방안 44
3.2.1 PREVENTION PRINCIPLE 44
3.2.2 CONTRA PROFERENTEM (VOID FOR UNCERTAINTY) 46
3.2.3 CONCURRENT DELAY 47
3.3 실무활용 고려사항 50
3.3.1 사업단계별 대처방안 51
3.3.2 LDs 약화 시키기 위한 입증책임 60
4. 사례연구 63
4.1 CASE STUDY 연구 대상 63
4.2 KEY LIABILITIES 검증 64
4.2.1 철강 플랜트 65
4.2.2 발전프로세스 68
4.2.3 해양플랜트 73
4.2.4 화공프로세스 78
5. 결론 및 추후연구 83
5.1 결론 83
5.2 추후연구 85